Precision medicine beyond oncology

The field of oncology has successfully applied precision medicine approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Success has been driven by a growing understanding of the underlying biology of cancer; the emergence of innovative tools and technologies for biomarker identification and detection; and considerable advocacy by patients, physicians and policymakers that has helped drive further research and abundant funding. Drug and diagnostic developers are now exploring precision approaches in other areas of medicine, including neuroscience, immunology and women’s health. Given the unique challenges these domains pose, how best can the lessons learned from oncology be applied to these fields?