UCL researchers discover the recipe for painlessness
Posted: 4 December 2015 | Victoria White | No comments yet
The researchers made the discovery using mice modified to carry the same mutation as people born without Nav1.7. Their research revealed that people who lack Nav1.7 also produce higher than normal levels of natural opioid peptides…
University College London (UCL) researchers have discovered the recipe for painlessness using mice modified to carry the same mutation as people born without Nav1.7.
In 2006, it was shown that sodium channel Nav1.7 is particularly important for signalling in pain pathways and people born with non-functioning Nav1.7 do not feel pain. Drugs that block Nav1.7 have since been developed but they had disappointingly weak effects.
The new study reveals that mice and people who lack Nav1.7 also produce higher than normal levels of natural opioid peptides.
To examine if opioids were important for painlessness, the researchers gave naloxone, an opioid blocker, to mice lacking Nav1.7 and found that they became able to feel pain. They then gave naloxone to a 39-year-old woman with the rare mutation and she felt pain for the first time in her life.
“After a decade of rather disappointing drug trials, we now have confirmation that Nav1.7 really is a key element in human pain,” says Professor John Wood (UCL Medicine). “The secret ingredient turned out to be good old-fashioned opioid peptides, and we have now filed a patent for combining low dose opioids with Nav1.7 blockers. This should replicate the painlessness experienced by people with rare mutations, and we have already successfully tested this approach in unmodified mice.”
Discovery could lead to treatments for patients with chronic pain
Broad-spectrum sodium channel blockers are used as local anaesthetics, but they are not suitable for long-term pain management as they cause complete numbness and can have serious side-effects over time. By contrast, people born without working Nav1.7 still feel non-painful touch normally and the only known side-effect is the inability to smell.
Opioid painkillers such as morphine are highly effective at reducing pain, but long-term use can lead to dependence and tolerance. As the body becomes used to the drug it becomes less effective so higher doses are needed for the same effect, side effects become more severe, and eventually it stops working altogether.
“Used in combination with Nav1.7 blockers, the dose of opioid needed to prevent pain is very low,” explains Professor Wood. “People with non-functioning Nav1.7 produce low levels of opioids throughout their lives without developing tolerance or experiencing unpleasant side-effects. We hope to see our approach tested in human trials by 2017 and we can then start looking into drug combinations to help the millions of chronic pain patients around the world.”
University College London